These select articles were recently published by Buffett affiliates.
Elizabeth Shankman Hurd (Political Science), “Narratives of De-Secularization in International Relations,” Intellectual History Review (2017) 97-113.
This article explores how a particular narrative of de-secularization, the “restorative narrative,” is shaping US foreign religious policy and practice. It develops two arguments. First, this narrative re-instantiates and energizes particular secular-religious and religious-religious divides in ways that echo the narratives of secularization that it claims to challenge and transcend. Second, it contributes to the emergence of new forms of both politics and religion that are not only subservient to the interests of those in power but also marginalize a range of dissenting and nonconforming ways of life. The arguments are illustrated through discussions of recent developments at the US State Department, the evolving practices of US military chaplains, and the politics of foreign religious engagement in the context of the rise of Turkish Islamist conscientious objectors.
Hendrik Spruyt (Political Science), “Economies and Economic Interaction across Eurasia in the Early Modern Period.” The Globalization of International Society, Tim Dunne and Christian Reus-Smit, eds. (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2017)
A prevailing view suggests that the European order was distinct. Due to Europe’s political decentralization, economic interaction occurred across borders, facilitated by an international society based on common interests and values. By contrast, hegemonic political systems prevailed elsewhere. Such universal imperial systems constituted self-contained polities that stifled economic development. Consequently, capitalism arose in Europe alone. Gradually, European expansion led to the incorporation of the non-European regions into a global capitalist system. This chapter contends that the prevailing view is incorrect. The universal empires were neither self-contained nor stagnant. Significant interactions occurred across the Eurasian sphere with transnational networks creating conduits of knowledge and cultural exchange. Shared norms and practices were not the sole prerogative of the European state system. Globalization did not commence with the European maritime breakout. Moreover, rather than unidirectional expansion and displacement, Europeans layered on to existing organizational practices.
Noelle Sullivan (Anthropology), “Multiple Accountabilities: Development Cooperation, Transparency, and the Politics of Unknowing in Tanzania’s Health Sector,” Critical Public Health (2017): 193-204.
Accountability and transparency are considered best practices within development cooperation frameworks characteristic of global health practice today. This article asks: How do accountability and transparency work, and for whom? Drawing on Geissler’s concept ‘unknowing,’ it first demonstrates that global health actors are aware, yet strategically obscure, the instabilities and problematics of data and indicators in Tanzania. Second, it suggests that multiple and contradictory forms of accountability are pursued by global health actors, while this multiplicity is often unspoken in order to render accountability frameworks legitimate to sustain the existing development cooperation system. Third, foreign and Tanzanian actors within the health sector perpetuate accountability and development cooperation frameworks which are neither cooperative, nor accountable to citizens and purported beneficiaries of aid, because doing so allows actors to pursue interests often unrelated to formal policy goals.
Ayca Alemdaroğlu (Sociology), “Spatial Segregation and Class Subjectivity in Turkey,” Social and Cultural Geography 2016: 1-20.
Drawing on ethnographic research in an upper-class district in Turkey, this article examines social and spatial experiences of young low-wage service workers who travel between their homes in low-income neighborhoods and jobs in gated communities, upscale shopping malls and corporate offices. The paper argues that the significance of upper class districts or gated communities for urban inequality lies in the ways they relate to the outside. It analyses the district’s effect on urban spatial segregation and urbanites’ sense of place. The study contributes to the understanding of urban inequality at the intersection of spatial, emotional and temporal experiences of urbanites.
Karen J. Alter (Political Science), et al., “How Context Shapes the Authority of International Courts,” Law and Contemporary Problems, 79 (1) 2016.
This article provides a framework to assess the varied authority of international courts (ICs). The authors generate practicable metric that assesses de facto IC authority. They identify five possible types of IC authority that correspond to different audiences for IC rulings. The goal of this metric is to help the contributors to a symposium on ICs assess how contextual factors beyond the control of judges affect IC authority. The final section considers the relationship of IC authority to IC power. Powerful ICs have intermediate and extensive authority that extends across a broad range of issue areas and types of cases.
Ana Arjona (Political Science), “Institutions, Civilian Resistance, and Wartime Social Order: A Process-driven Natural Experiment in the Colombian Civil War,” Latin American Politics and Society, 58 (3) 2016: 99-122.
Why do armed groups fighting in civil wars establish different institutions in territories where they operate? Arjona tests a theory that different forms of wartime social order arise from a process in which an aspiring ruler—an armed group—expands the scope of its rule unless civilians push back. Civilians arguably have bargaining power if they can credibly threaten combatants with collective resistance. Such resistance is a function of preexisting local institutions. Using a process-driven natural experiment in three villages in Central Colombia, this article traces the effects of institutional quality on wartime social order.
Sandeep Baliga (Management), et al., “Torture and the Commitment Problem.” Review of Economic Studies (2016).
This paper studies torture as a mechanism for extracting information from a suspect who may or may not be informed. The authors show that a standard rationale for torture generates two commitment problems. First, the principal would benefit from a commitment to torture a suspect he knows to be innocent. Secondly, the principal would benefit from a commitment to limit the amount of torture faced by the guilty. The authors analyze a dynamic model of torture in which the credibility of these threats and promises is endogenous. They show that these commitment problems dramatically reduce the value of torture and can even render it completely ineffective. They use the model to address questions such as the effect of enhanced interrogation techniques, rights against indefinite detention, and delegation of torture to specialists.
Hector Carrillo (Sociology), et al., “From MSM to Heteroflexibilities: Non-Exclusive Straight Male Identities and their Implications for HIV Prevention and Health Promotion,” Global Public Health 2016: 1-14.
This article examines the logics of self-identification among men who have same-sex desires and behaviors and consider themselves to be straight. Drawing from interviews conducted in the USA with 100 straight-identified men who have same-sex desires and 40 partners of their partners, we argue that these men see themselves as straight and therefore it is important to understand what specifically they mean by that. The authors propose that health educators must acknowledge flexibilities in the definition of heterosexuality and use an expanded definition to envision, with these men, how to more effectively engage them in HIV prevention and health promotion.
Bruce G. Carruthers (Sociology), et al., “Regulatory Races: The Effects of Jurisdictional Competition on Regulatory Standards,” Journal of Economic Literature 54 (1) 2016: 52-97.
This article surveys the literature on regulatory arbitrage in four settings: labor regulation, environmental protection, corporate governance, and banking and finance. For a regulatory race to occur, firms must migrate across state or country borders in response to geographic differences in the costs and benefits of regulation, and governments must shape their regulatory policies with the aim of affecting those migration flows. The authors find that both these conditions hold only in rare circumstances. More commonly, political pressures within jurisdictions produce a heterogeneous pattern resembling Tiebout sorting. Such regulatory convergence as occurs more often results from deliberate harmonization or imitation.
Jordan Gans-Morse (Political Science), et al., “Putin’s Crackdown on Mortality: Rethinking Legal Nihilism and State Capacity in Light of Russia’s Surprising Public Health Campaigns,” Problems of Post-Communism 63 (1) 2016: 1-15.
Facing a demographic crisis, the Russian government recently introduced measures to reduce alcohol consumption, traffic fatalities, and tobacco use. The relative success of these measures challenges assumptions about Russia’s culture of “legal nihilism” and lack of state capacity. Drawing on surveys of smokers at Russian universities, the authors provide evidence that low legal compliance results from low enforcement expectations, not a unique legal culture. To account for unexpectedly stringent enforcement of public health laws, they offer a theory of selective state capacity. The top leadership’s personal endorsements of policy initiatives make clear to lower-level officials which rules must be enforced.
John Hagan (Sociology), et al., “The Theory of Legal Cynicism and Sunni Insurgent Violence in Post-Invasion Iraq,” American Sociological Review 81 (2) 2016: 316-346.
The authors elaborate a cultural framing theory of legal cynicism—previously used to account for neighborhood variation in Chicago homicides—to explain Arab Sunni victimization and insurgent attacks during the U.S. post-invasion occupation of Iraq. Arab Sunnis responded to reports of unnecessary violent attacks with a legally cynical framing of the U.S./Coalition-led invasion and occupation, the new Shia-dominated Iraqi state, and its military and police. A post-invasion frame amplification of beliefs about state-based illegitimacy, unresponsiveness, and insecurity made predictable that Arab Sunni insurgent attacks would continue. Violence in Iraq persisted despite U.S. surge efforts to end the insurgency.
John Hagan (Sociology), et al., “Pursuit of Justice and the Victims of War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Exploratory Study,” Crime, Law and Social Change 65 (1) 2016: 1-27.
This paper presents results from a 2007 survey of victims of war crimes and crimes against humanity from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Our results show that the ICTY is the primary decision-maker for war crimes and crimes against humanity of their choice. The respondents who reported being raped, beaten, and starved were more supportive of the ICTY than the other respondents were. The respondents who evaluated the ICTY as fair and who testified at the Court of BiH were more likely to select the ICTY as the preferred decision-maker. The respondents evaluated only one domestic court as fair.
Marina E Henke (Political Science), “Great Powers and UN Force Generation: A Case Study of UNAMID,” International Peacekeeping 23 (3) 2016: 468-492.
How are UN peacekeepers recruited? What role do the UN and its powerful member states play? Henke addresses these questions through a case study of the UN–AU operation to Darfur (UNAMID), relying on over 50 interviews and newly declassified documents. The study depicts division of labor between the UN’s technical expertise and the power of key member states. UN contributions sometimes require provision of incentives beyond regular reimbursements, so powerful UN member states step in. However, UN officials play a brokerage role in this process informing interested member states which countries would be suitable for bilateral démarches and why.
Ian Hurd (Political Science), et al., “How to Get Away with Cholera: The UN, Haiti, and International Law,” Perspectives on Politics 14 (1) 2016: 70-86.
The legalization of world politics is often celebrated for reducing impunity for those who contribute to humanitarian crises. This may sometimes be true but the opposite is also true. In 2010, United Nations peacekeepers unwittingly brought cholera to Haiti and sparked an epidemic. Legal activists have sought to hold the UN responsible. However, these efforts have been stymied by the structures of public international law. The Haiti case powerfully illustrates the dangers of legalism, which have been largely overlooked in discussions of international law, and suggests that law alone is an inadequate arbiter of responsibility in international politics.
Ian Hurd (Political Science), “Enchanted and Disenchanted International Law,” Global Policy, (7) 2016: 96–101.
Scholars and activists commonly see international law in a privileged normative and political position in world politics, where international legal institutions are assumed to advance important goals such as international stability, human justice, and even global order as a whole. Hurd explores this attitude toward international law, which he calls an “enchanted” view, and contrasts it to the ‘disenchanted’ alternative. Where the enchanted attitude presumes the normative valence and political wisdom of following international law, the disenchanted approach treats these as open questions for inquiry and discussion. The disenchanted approach is more empirically minded, and more politically open, than the enchanted, and leads to a distinct research program on legalization in international affairs – one that is attentive to the politics of law, the connections between law and power, the ambiguity that exists between legality and policy wisdom.
William Hurst (Political Science), “Chinese Law and Governance: Moving Beyond Responsive Authoritarianism and Rule of Law.” Journal of Chinese Governance (2016) 457-469.
In his essay, Francis Fukuyama offers a vision of Chinese governance that the author contends is flawed in at least three important respects: the basic framework of his three pillars (and in particular, his conception of the rule of law), his characterization of the Chinese legal system, and his assumption of the strength (and even agility and responsiveness) of China’s bureaucratic state structure. After examining Fukuyama’s arguments, the author outlines a different framework, which he calls legal regimes, and explains how it can be applied to understand the contemporary realities of China’s legal system. He also challenges assumptions of state strength or resilience, before examining the implications for current Chinese politics and possible future trajectories.
Rajeev Kinra (History), “Cultures of Comparative Philology in the Early Modern Indo-Persian World,” Philological Encounters 1(1-4): 225-287.
This article surveys comparative philology in the Indo-Persian world, and situates it within debates about global forms of intellectual modernity. From its early beginnings, comparative philology in Asia developed into a scholarly discipline in which a host of concerns relating to Indo-Persian intellectual life was negotiated. These developments took place over many centuries. But in their increasingly sophisticated scholarship, as well as their increasing cognizance of their own scholarly disciplinarity, we find several distinctly “modernizing” tendencies among many of the Indo-Persian philologists discussed here, long before the supposed “invention” of the discipline by western scholars.
Amanda Logan (Anthropology), “’Why Can't People Feed Themselves?’: Archaeology as Alternative Archive of Food Security in Banda, Ghana,” American Anthropologist 118 (3) 2016: 508-524.
Today, food insecurity is associated with climatic shifts and poverty. Less well understood is how hunger took its present-day form. Logan proposes that archaeology can be an archive of food security. Material remains provide a view of changing foodways and political economy and can be used to trace processes leading to modern-day food insecurity patterns. Logan provides a case study showing how food insecurity was avoided during a centuries-long drought in Ghana, and emerged only much later as market economies and colonial rule took hold. She suggests that archaeology is essential for making processes of “slow violence” visible.
Melissa Macauley (History), “Entangled States: The Translocal Repercussions of Rural Pacification in China, 1869–1873,” American Historical Review 121 (3) 2016: 755-779.
Using a multiscopic approach to global history, this article shows how a military campaign of rural pacification in southeastern China fostered entangled state-building in China and in the British colony of the Straits Settlements on the Malay Peninsula. Two nineteenth-century polities in the early stages of development—one colonial, one provincial—sought to subjugate the same set of freewheeling Chinese sojourners who long had operated beyond the orb of governmental authority. In so acting, these states became transformed themselves.
James Mahoney (Political Science and Sociology), et al., “Case Study Research Putting the Quant Into the Qual,” Sociological Methods and Research 45 (3) 2016: 375-391.
Case studies are usually considered a qualitative method. However, some aspects of case study research—notably, the selection of cases—may be viewed through a quantitative template. This essay introduces a symposium in which authors were invited to contemplate the ways in which case study research might be conceived, and improved, by applying lessons from large-n cross-case research.
James Mahoney (Political Science and Sociology), “Mechanisms, Bayesianism, and Process Tracing,” New Political Economy 21 (5) 2016: 493-499.
This essay examines the role of mechanisms and Bayesian inference in process tracing. With respect to mechanisms, it argues that the core of process tracing with causal inference is the identification of mechanisms understood as intervening events. The Bayesian nature of process tracing explains why it is inappropriate to view qualitative research as suffering from a small-N problem and certain standard causal identification problems. More generally, the paper shows how the power of process tracing as a qualitative methodology depends on and grows from its set-theoretic underpinnings.
Joel Mokyr (Economics), “Institutions and the Origins of the Great Enrichment,” Atlantic Economic Journal 44 (2) 2016: 243-259.
The origins of modern economic growth and the Industrial Revolution that triggered it can be found in the cultural and institutional developments in early modern Europe. In this era the Republic of Letters emerged as a transnational community that solved many of the incentive problems that plagued the creation and diffusion of science and technology, and paved the way to the Industrial Enlightenment of the eighteenth century.
Stephen C. Nelson (Political Science), et al., “Are IMF Lending Programs Good or Bad for Democracy?” Review of International Organizations (2016): 1-36.
Have IMF lending programs undermined political democracy in borrowing countries? Building on the extensive literature on conditional lending, the authors outline several pathways through which IMF program participation might affect the levels of democracy in borrowing countries. To test the argument, they assemble annual data from 120 low- and middle-income countries between 1971 and 2007. The authors use three strategies to estimate the direction and size of the association between participation in IMF lending programs and the level of democracy. They find evidence for modest but definitively positive conditional differences in the democracy scores of participating and non-participating countries.
Wendy Pearlman (Political Science), “Moral Identity and Protest Cascades in Syria,” British Journal of Political Science (2016).
Cascade models explain the roles of the intrepid few who initiate protest and the masses who join when the expected utility of dissent flips from negative to positive. Yet questions remain about what motivates participation between those points on the causal chain, or under any conditions of high risk. To explain these anomalies, this article employs theories of moral identity to explore the interdependence of a facet of decision making that rationalist models typically regard as fixed: individuals’ awareness of, and need to express, values central to their sense of self. This article identifies three mechanisms that describe ways that individuals’ responses to early risers trigger moral identity-based motivations for protest. Original interviews with displaced Syrians about their participation in demonstrations illustrate these processes.
Wendy Pearlman (Political Science), “From Palestine to Syria: Three Intifadas and Lessons for Popular Struggles,” Middle East Law and Governance 8 (1) 2016: 91-103.
What lessons can the Palestinian national movement offer contemporary revolts in the Middle East, and Syria specifically? Though the Syrian revolt against dictatorship is distinct from Palestinians’ mobilization against occupation, many patterns link them. This essay examines three uprisings in Palestinian history. Comparing these cases to the ongoing Syrian rebellion, it draws conclusions about factors shaping the course of grassroots struggles. It points to yearning for dignity as the engine of popular mobilization, the effect of state repression in escalating protest, and the relationship between movements’ internal political unity and the effectiveness of their campaigns.
Wendy Pearlman (Political Science), “Narratives of Fear in Syria,” Perspectives on Politics 14 (1) 2016: 21-37.
Scholarship on Syria has traditionally been limited by difficulty in accessing the reflections of ordinary citizens due to reluctance to speak about politics. The 2011 revolt opened exciting opportunities in this regard. Pearlman explores what we can learn from greater attention to such data, based on interviews with 200 Syrian refugees. It aids understanding of Syria and other cases by elucidating lived experiences obscured during a repressive past, providing a fresh window into national identity, and demonstrating how the act of narration is an exercise in meaning making within a revolution and itself a revolutionary practice.
Monica Prasad (Sociology), et al., “Walking the Line: The White Working Class and the Economic Consequences of Morality,” Politics and Society (2016): 281-304.
Over one-third of the white working class in America vote for Republicans. Some scholars argue that these voters support Republican economic policies, while others argue that these voters’ preferences on cultural and moral issues override their economic preferences. This article draws on in-depth interviews with 120 white working-class voters to defend a broadly “economic” interpretation: for this segment of voters, moral and cultural appeals have an economic dimension, because these voters believe certain moral behaviors will help them prosper economically. Even the very word “conservative” is understood as referencing not respect for tradition generally, but avoidance of debt and excessive consumption specifically. For many respondents, the need to focus on morality and personal responsibility as a means of prospering economically—what we call “walking the line”—accords with the rhetoric they associate with Republicans. Deindustrialization may have heightened the appeal of this rhetoric.
Rachel Beatty Riedl (Political Science), “Individualism and Empowerment in Pentecostal Sermons: New Evidence from Nairobi, Kenya.” African Affairs 115 (458) 2016: 119-144.
Pentecostal and Charismatic churches are growing rapidly in many parts of Africa and the developing world. This article presents new evidence on these churches, based on sermon texts and interview data gathered from a random sample of churches in Nairobi, Kenya. It finds that Pentecostal churches in Nairobi are remarkably consistent in the messages they disseminate, despite great variation in church and membership characteristics across congregations. In contrast to literature on civil society and ethnicity, which sees religious groups as potential collective agents or as cohesive interest groups, this article suggests that churches are leading members to prioritize the individual.
Cynthia Robin (Anthropology), “Neither Dopes nor Dupes: Maya Farmers and Ideology,” Ancient Mesoamerica (2016): 221-230.
Drawing inspiration from the work and legacy of Elizabeth Brumfiel, this paper develops a case study about the lives and religious practices of Maya farmers at the Chan site in Belize, to demonstrate how farmers were neither the dopes, dupes, nor mystified masses of Maya state-level ideologies. The author uses this case study to rethink anthropological theories that attempt to explain the role of state level ideologies in the production of inequality and power, particularly ideas about ideology and false consciousness that are often bundled together and referred to as the “dominant ideology thesis.”
Shalini Shankar (Anthropology), “Coming in First: Sound and Embodiment in Spelling Bees,” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 26 (2) 2016: 119-140.
The increasingly intense level of competition of the National Spelling Bee in recent years suggests that this “brain sport” has become a complex site for the politics of language standardization, media, and childhood competition. Shankar delves into this nexus to explore its heart: sound. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted at spelling bees, she examines how spellers experience the word as a mélange of sounds, the embodied processes that inform their orthographic choices, and how this sensory process made viewable for media audiences who may know little about orthography.
Daniel F. Spulber (Management), “Patent Licensing and Bargaining with Innovative Complements and Substitutes,” Research in Economics (2016).
Inventors and producers bargain over royalties to license multiple patented inventions. In the first stage of the bargaining game, inventors offer licenses to producers and producers demand licenses. In the second stage of the game, inventors and producers engage in bilateral bargaining over licensing royalties. The analysis shows that there is a unique weakly dominant strategy equilibrium in license offers. The main result is that this bargaining procedure maximizes the joint profits of inventors and producers. Licensing royalties are less than bundled monopoly royalties. The efficiency of the bargaining outcome contrasts with the inefficiency of patent royalties in the Cournot posted prices model. The analysis explores the implications of the main results for antitrust policy concerns including Standard Essential Patent holdup, royalty stacking, patent thickets, the Tragedy of the Anticommons, and justification for patent pools. The discussion also considers how imperfect intellectual property rights affect bargaining over royalties.
Amy Stanley (History), “Maidservants’ Tales: Narrating Domestic and Global History in Eurasia, 1600–1900,” American Historical Review 12 (2) 2016: 437-460.
Microhistory and global history are often seen as opposing strategies of historical inquiry, with irreconcilable research methods, central questions, and strategies of narration. This article combines both approaches, telling the story of a nineteenth-century Japanese maidservant, Tsuneno, both as a microhistory and as a global history. Situating Tsuneno’s mundane story in both local and global frames challenges the microhistorical approach by considering how questions of agency might be answered with reference to transnational and long-term trends as well as close attention to intimate contexts. It also shows how attention to overlooked historical actors might challenge the periodization and spatial imagination of global history.
Jacqueline Stevens (Political Science), "One Dollar Per Day: The Slaving Wages of Immigration Jail, 1943 to Present," Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, vol. 25, issue 3, published spring 2016.
This Article evaluates the legality and the genesis of the one dollar per day wages paid to those in custody under immigration laws. In 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt issued an order moving the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) out of the Department of Labor and into the Department of Justice (DOJ). During this same time frame, the U.S. Government established internment camps for “enemy aliens,” i.e. civilians in the United States and other countries in Latin America who were or were imagined to be citizens of Axis powers. When the average daily cost of each person’s detention in 1943 was one dollar, the DOJ paid those so held 80¢ per day for their work. The camps inspired the Immigration Service Expenses law of 1950, which authorized paying those in custody under immigration laws for work performed. If those in immigration custody today are paid at the 1943 rate, they would be earning about $80 per day. This Article draws on documents and contracts obtained under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) as well as the program’s implementation and history for a statutory analysis of its legality. It also argues that under a plain meaning reading of the relevant laws, legislative history, and purpose, the program appears to violate several labor laws and the Fifth, Sixth, Thirteenth, and Fourteenth Amendments.
Kimberly Marion Suiseeya (Political Science), “Transforming Justice in REDD+ through a Politics of Difference Approach,” Forests (2016).
Since Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation “Plus” (REDD+) starting gaining traction in the UN climate negotiations in 2007, its architects and scholars have grappled with its community-level justice implications. This paper argues that current REDD+ debates are too focused on relatively simple visions of either distributive or procedural justice, and pay too little attention to the core recognitional justice concerns of REDD+ critics, namely questions of what values, worldviews, rights, and identities are privileged or displaced in the emergence, design, and implementation of REDD+ and with what effects. This paper examines the tensions that emerge when designing institutions to promote multi-scalar, multivalent justice in REDD+ to ask: what are the justice demands that REDD+ architects face when designing REDD+ institutions? Complexifying the concepts of justice as deployed in the debates on REDD+ can illuminate the possibilities for a diversity of alternative perspectives to generate new institutional design ideas for REDD+.
Jessica Winegar (Anthropology), “A Civilized Revolution: Aesthetics and Political Action in Egypt,” American Ethnologist (2016).
Acts of aesthetic ordering dominated Egyptian protest and civic activity in 2011, around the time of former president Hosni Mubarak’s downfall. They played a central role in motivating collective political action, giving form to a nationalist utopian vision and legitimizing ordinary Egyptians as active agents and upright citizens. Yet they also reproduced exclusionary middle-class aspirations tied up with state projects and related forms of citizenship that center on surveillance, individualism, and consumption. Examining such acts of aesthetic ordering reveals the tensions at the heart of many political movements, especially as people attempt to enact their utopian visions in public space. The precarity of both middle classness and utopian schemes of revolution render aesthetics a key battleground of political action.
Ayca Alemdaroğlu (Sociology), "Escaping femininity, claiming respectability: Culture, class and young women in Turkey," Women's Studies International Forum, 53 (November–December 2015): 53-62.
Drawing on interview-based ethnographic research in Ankara, this article studies formations of femininity across social classes in urban Turkey. It centers on four young women, who have unequal access to economic resources and different cultural meanings. Through their biographies, this paper examines the effects of social class on experiences of gender and negotiations of femininity, on the one hand. And on the other, it demonstrates common narratives that young women employ in negotiating gender.
Lina Britto (History), “Hurricane Winds: Vallenato Music and Marijuana Traffic in Colombia’s First Illegal Drugs Boom,” Hispanic American Historical Review 95 (1) 2015: 71-102.
This essay, based in large part on local oral history, uncovers the lived experience of participants in the 1970s marijuana boom along the Colombian coast. It narrates how the country's first illegal drugs merchants (marimberos) helped shape a key element of modern Colombian nationalism by promoting vallenato music. Soon marimberos constituted a new entrepreneurial class with a regional masculine identity. That process helped marimberos to open space for themselves and turn vallenato into an expression of Colombian popular culture. This essay examines that process and explains why the marimberos’ role in vallenato’s history has been largely erased from memory.
Bruce G. Carruthers (Sociology), et al., “An Unlikely Alliance: How Experts and Industry Transformed Consumer Credit Policy in the Early Twentieth Century United States,” Social Science History 39 (4) 2015: 581-612.
An important chapter in the history of consumer credit market regulation came 1909-1941 when experts at the Russell Sage Foundation (RSF) campaigned to transform small loans in the US. Concentrating on the passage of the Uniform Small Loan Law, the foundation's success hinged upon an alliance with the American Association of Personal Finance Companies. While most scholarship portrays experts as being dominated by industry, this case provides a countervailing example. The article explains how RSF built its expert reputation through reputational entrepreneurship and traces how RSF experts deployed this reputation as a power resource in their negotiations with small loan lenders.
Seema Jayachandran (Economics), “The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries,” Annual Review of Economics (2015) 7: 63-88.
Is the high degree of gender inequality in developing countries explained by underdevelopment itself? Or do the societies that are poor today hold cultural views leading to gender inequality? This article discusses mechanisms through which gender gaps narrow as countries grow. Although much of the GDP/gender-inequality relationship can be explained by the development process, society-specific factors are also at play. Norms such as patrilocality and concern for women's “purity” help explain the male-skewed sex ratio and low female employment in some countries. The article also discusses why the sex ratio has become more male-skewed with development and suggests policy implications.
Rebecca C. Johnson (English), “Importing the Novel: The Arabic Novel in and as Translation,” Novel 48 (2): 243-250.
Taking as a case study the first known novel to be originally written in Arabic, this essay addresses the centrality of translation to the Arabic novel. Early original Arabic novels were serialized alongside translations, incorporated translated excerpts into their narratives, or were prefaced by comments that situated them in a literary marketplace dominated by translated fiction. This essay reads one such novel within larger debates surrounding the importation of foreign objects. It shows how these novels engender transformations in form, how they create but also destabilize imagined communities, and how they provoke new assessments of literary, cultural, and commercial value
Viorica Marian (Communication Sciences & Disorders), et al., “Linguistic Predictors of Cultural Identification in Bilinguals,” Applied Linguistics 2015.
Most of the world’s population has knowledge of at least two languages. Many bilinguals identify with at least two cultures. Because language enables participation in cultural practices and expression, bilingual experience and cultural identity are interconnected. However, specific links remain largely unidentified. This study examines which aspects of bilingualism relate to identification with first- and second-language cultures. Results indicate that cultural identification is predicted by age of language acquisition, language proficiency, foreign accentedness, and contexts of long-term language immersion and current language exposure. Language–culture relations are mediated by the age and manner in which the second language was acquired.
Stephen C. Nelson (Political Science), “Paper Entanglements: Why (and How) Keynes’s Ideas about Sovereign Debt Still Matter,” Challenge 58 (6) 2015.
How to manage sovereign debt has become a key question in the problems that developed after the financial crisis. This author maintains that Keynes, who thought about this deeply between the wars, provides some critical lessons.
William Reno (Political Science), “Lost in Transitions: Civil War Termination in Sub-Saharan Africa,” American Historical Review 120 (5) 2015: 1798-1810.
The article offers information on the transitions and ending of civil war in sub-Saharan Africa. Topics discussed include transition from goal-oriented war of liberation narrative toward a criminal war narrative, granting rebels for national liberation movements by United Nations (UN) and the Organization of African Unity (OAU), and political violence and effect on community by civil war.
Bruce Spencer (Statistics), et al., “Comparing the Performance of Japan’s Earthquake Hazard Maps to Uniform and Randomized Maps,” Seismological Research Letters 7 (1) 2015: 90-102.
Following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Geller argued that “all of Japan is at risk from earthquakes, and the present state of seismological science does not allow us to reliably differentiate the risk level in particular geographic areas,” so a map showing uniform hazard would be preferable to the existing map. The authors explore this by comparing how well a 510-year long record of Japanese earthquakes is described by three types of map. Surprisingly, uniform and randomized maps do better than actual maps. However, under an alternative specification, Japanese national hazard maps perform better than the others.
Jacqueline Stevens (Political Science), "Forensic Intelligence and the Deportation Research Clinic: Toward a New Paradigm," Perspectives on Politics, 13 (3) 2015: 722-738.
Since 2012, the Deportation Research Clinic has been pursuing research on government misconduct under the rubric of what Jacqueline Stevens calls “forensic intelligence.” Stevens draws on scholarship by S.M. Amadae, Noam Chomsky, Philip Green, Chalmers Johnson, Kenneth Osgood, Ido Oren, Michael Rogin, and Frances Saunders to explain the relation of “forensic intelligence” to the “national intelligence” paradigm now organizing mainstream political science research. The article concludes by describing how U.S. government and economic elites distort research and teaching priorities, and provides examples from Northwestern University.
Marguerite De Huszar Allen, “Review Article: The Saddest History Ever Written: On Randolph L. Braham’s The Geographical Encyclopedia of the Holocaust in Hungary (2013).” Hungarian Cultural Studies. e-Journal of the American Hungarian Educators Association, Volume 7 (2014) 1-10.
What haunts the reader, as it did the survivors themselves, is the question for which there is no easy answer: how could this have happened? How was this possible when Hungary was the last country to be occupied by Nazi forces and the 800,000 Jews in Hungary formed the largest remaining community in Europe? What The Geographical Encyclopedia of the Holocaust in Hungary achieves is the transformation of faceless numbers, like 800,000, to flesh and blood people who once lived in specific communities all over Hungary, who were subsequently erased and replaced by non-Jews (except in the capital Budapest). Thus, Randolph Braham's Geographical Encyclopedia is, above all, a haunting tribute and memorial to those Hungarian Jews who died and those who might have been saved.
Marguerite De Huszar Allen, “Making Relations, Breaking Relations: Political, Economic, and Cultural Relations between France and Hungary 1905–1910 and the Revue de Hongrie” East Central Europe 41 (2014) 1-33.
French-Hungarian relations reached a high point in the aftermath of the 1896 Millennium Celebration in Budapest. But by 1910, prospects for rapprochement had faded. The article explores the genesis of the rupture in relations that manifested itself in the Treaty of Trianon. It investigates events from two new perspectives: first, the career of French consul general Viscount de Fontenay before and during his stay in Budapest (1906–1912); second, the founding of the Revue de Hongrie along with its early years of publication. The article is also a contribution to the previously neglected history of international cultural relations.
Ana Arjona (Political Science), “Wartime Institutions: A Research Agenda,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 58 (8) 2014: 1360-1389.
Theories of civil war usually theorize the choices of civilians and combatants without considering the institutional context in which they interact. In this article, Arjona proposes a research agenda on local wartime institutions. To this end, she presents original evidence on conflict areas in Colombia, proposing the concept of wartime social order. She also creates a typology and discusses several ways in which research on wartime institutions can contribute to our study of civil war both at the micro and macro levels.
Héctor Carrillo and Steven Epstein (Sociology), “Immigrant Sexual Citizenship: Intersectional Templates among Mexican Gay Immigrants to the USA,” Citizenship Studies. 18 (3-4) 2014: 259-276.
Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship. Carillo and Epstein argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multi-scalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections.
Erin F. Delaney (Law), “Judiciary Rising: Constitutional Change in the United Kingdom,” Northwestern University Law Review, 108 (2) 2014: 543-605.
Britain is experiencing a period of dramatic change that challenges centuries-old understandings of British constitutionalism. In the past fifteen years, the British Parliament enacted a quasi-constitutional bill of rights; devolved legislative power to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland; and created a new Supreme Court. This article assesses the cumulative force of the many recent constitutional changes, shedding new light on the changing nature of the British constitution.
Jonathon Glassman (History), "Creole Nationalists and the Search for Nativist Authenticity in Twentieth-Century Zanzibar: The Limits of Cosmopolitanism," Journal of African History, 55(2) 2014:229-247.
The founders of the Zanzibar National Party can be understood as creole nationalists, who imagined their political authority as stemming from membership in a transnational Arab elite. But in the mid-twentieth century they crafted a new historical narrative that depicted their movement as having originated with indigenous villagers. This article traces the genesis of this masquerade and asks what it implies about the nature of the creole metaphor and its supposed link to discourses of cosmopolitan hybridity.
Mark Hauser (Anthropology), “Land, Labor, and Things: Surplus in a New West Indian Colony (1763–1807),” Economic Anthropology, 1 (1) 2014: 49–65.
Surplus becomes a very interesting word when one considers slavery in the Caribbean. By asking the question, "How did people on the ground make surplus?" we get a lot clearer picture of how slavery actually worked. To map the intersecting interests born out of putative surplus, this article looks specifically at the commercial networks that emerged in relation to one island's intensification of exportoriented crop production. Together these observations suggest that an institutional arrangement of people and things inverts traditional understandings of surplus in studies of slavery.
Stefan Henning (Asian Studies), "God's Translator: Qu'ran Translation and the Struggle over a Written National Language in 1930s China,"Modern China, (September) 2014: 1-25.
Translation was crucial to the formation of Chinese modernity. This article presents a case of translation from a non-Western context: the translation of the Qur'an into Chinese. Henning analyzes why the first Chinese Qur'an translations in the twentieth century were accomplished by non-Muslims and how the decision to translate among Muslims followed from an internal critique of Muslim collective life in China.
Elizabeth Shakman Hurd (Political Science), “Alevis under Law: The Politics of Religious Freedom in Turkey,” Journal of Law and Religion, 29 (3) 2014: 1-20.
Proponents of minority rights are calling for urgent measures to protect the Copts in Egypt, the Ahmadiyya in Pakistan, and the Baha’i in Iran to secure religious diversity, shield minority populations from discriminatory practices, and prevent the outbreak of religious violence. This article examines how the complexities and ambivalences of ordinary religious belonging are translated and transformed through the process of becoming legalized and governmentalized. It documents the risks of adopting religion as a category to draw together individuals and communities as corporate bodies that are depicted as in need of legal protection to achieve their freedom.
Brannon Ingram (Religious Studies), "The Portable Madrasa: Print, Publics, and the Authority of the Deobandi 'ulama," Modern Asian Studies, 48 (4) 2014: 845-871.
In the first decades of the twentieth century, classically trained Muslim scholars (`ulama) of the influential Deobandi school of North India issued a number of immensely popular, mass-printed 'primers' on Islamic belief and ritual practice. Now ubiquitous in the Islamic bookshops in South Asia and elsewhere, these primers sought to summarize an Islamic education for a lay Muslim reading public. This article explores how their primers advanced the Deobandi school's well-known critique of popular piety even as they claimed to address Muslims generally, and how their authors negotiated the subtle dynamics of print.
Seema Jayachandran (Economics), "Incentives to Teach Badly: After-School Tutoring in Developing Countries," Journal of Development Economics, 108 (2014): 109-205.
Schools in developing countries frequently offer for-profit tutoring to their own students. This potentially gives teachers a perverse incentive to teach less during school to increase demand for their tutoring. This article models and presents empirical evidence on these effects, using survey and test score data from Nepal. The evidence suggests that when schools offer for-profit tutoring, teachers teach less during the regular school day.
Monica Prasad (Sociology), and Isaac William Martin, "Taxes and Fiscal Sociology," Annual Review of Sociology, 40 (July) 2014:331-345.
This article reviews recent research in fiscal sociology, specifically contributions to the study of taxation that illuminate core issues in the sociology of contemporary capitalism. Research on developed countries suggests that tax policy changes are important for explaining rising income inequality, structuring durable inequalities of race and gender, and alleviating poverty. Comparative research on developing countries, however, shows consumption taxes are more conducive to growth than taxes on income.
Stephen Nelson (Political Science), "Playing Favorites: How Shared Beliefs Shape the IMF's Lending Decisions," International Organization 68 (2) 2014: 297-328.
This article suggests that IMF lending is systematically biased. Preferential treatment is largely driven by the degree of similarity between beliefs held by IMF officials and key economic policy-makers in the borrowing country. This article describes the IMF's ideational culture as "neoliberal," and assumes it to be stable during the observation window (1980–2000). When fellow neoliberals control the top economic policy posts the distance between the means of the policy team's beliefs and the IMF narrows; consequently, IMF loans become less onerous, more generous, and less rigorously enforced.
Elie Rekhess (Jewish Studies), “The Arab Minority in Israel: Reconsidering the “1948 Paradigm,” Israel Studies, 19 (2) 2014: 187-217.
This article describes how, in the years since the Oslo Accords of 1993, the Arab Palestinian elites in Israel have begun to focus on reconsidering, and in fact, reconstructing the “1948 Paradigm”, the policy guidelines adopted in 1948 by the State of Israel toward the Arabs who remained within the newly established state. The article examines the reconceptualization of the Arabs’ status in Israel, highlighting the emphasis on the claim to be acknowledged as a national minority and as an indigenous people.
William Reno (Political Science), and Christopher R. Day, "In Harm's Way: African Counter-Insurgency and Patronage Politics," Civil Wars, 16 (2) 2014:105-126.
This article explains why contemporary African regimes choose different counter-insurgency strategies and why they tend not to be population-centric. Reno and Day argue that strategies correspond to the ways in which incumbent regimes in Africa deal with different segments of political society through patronage. Incumbents seek varying levels of accommodation with rebel leaders, or try to eliminate them, according to rebels' historical position within the state.
Andrew Roberts (Political Science), "How Stable and Reasonable is Postcommunist Public Opinion? The Case of the Czech Republic," Europe – Asia Studies, 66 (6) 2014:925-944.
While there has been some skepticism about whether the postcommunist public is prepared to rule their countries, this article concludes that postcommunist public opinion is more reasonable than conventional wisdom suggests. Opinions on most policies change slowly if at all and when they do change the changes are prompted more by gradual shifts in mores than by political manipulation. This suggests that citizens in the region are prepared to have a significant voice in policy making.
Galya Ruffer (International Studies), "Testimony of Sexual Violence in the DR Congo and the Injustice of Rape: Moral Outrage, Epistemic Injustice and the Failures of Bearing Witness," Oregon Review of International Law, 15 (Spring 2014): 225-270.
Whereas prosecutions in international criminal courts have increasingly included charges of rape, the messy realities of justice reveal that many witness testimonies are never heard, convictions are limited, sentences are not served, reparations are not paid and women who bring cases to trial become social outcasts. This article examines the ways in which the norms and vocabularies of international criminal justice concerning sexual violence in genocide and mass conflict mediate localized understandings of witness testimony.
Shalini Shankar (Anthropology), and Jillian Cavanaugh, “Producing Authenticity in Global Capitalism: Language, Materiality, and Value,” American Anthropologist, 116 (1) 2014: 1-14.
The authors bring together two distinct ethnographic cases of capitalist production—food producers in northern Italy and Asian American advertising executives in New York City—to illustrate how these producers use language and materiality to produce value in global capitalism. Taken together, the cases illustrate how contemporary capitalist producers utilize particular notions of ethnolinguistic heritage in ways that reflect group-specific values and enable economic profitability in globalizing economies.
Jessica Winegar (Anthropology), "Civilizing Muslim Youth: Egyptian State Culture Programmes and Islamic Television Preachers," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 20 (3) 2014:445-465.
This article compares artist and Islamic preacher discourses on art, culture, and youth in Mubarak-era Egypt to highlight current anthropological discussions of secularism and religious discursive traditions. It argues that there is an ingraining of Islamic civilizing traditions into modern governance and vice versa. Explaining this phenomenon requires that we give more attention to social class and geographical location, nationalism, political-economic shifts, and the complicated ways that globally circulating discourses become entangled.
Karen Alter and Jacqueline McAllister (Political Science), et al., "A New Human Rights Court for West Africa: The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice," American Journal of International Law 108 2013.
The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice (ECCJ) is an increasingly active and bold international adjudicator of human rights violations in West Africa. Alter and her colleagues explain why ECOWAS member states authorized the ECCJ to review human rights suits by individuals but did not allow private actors to complain about violations of regional economic rules.
Lori Beaman (Economics), et. al., "Profitability of Fertilizer: Experimental Evidence from Female Rice Farmers in Mali," American Economic Review, 103 (3) 2013:381-386.
The authors conducted an experiment providing fertilizer grants to female rice farmers in Mali. They found that women who received fertilizer used both more fertilizer and more complementary inputs such as herbicides and hired labor. This shows that farmers respond to an increase in one input by re-optimizing other inputs. Second, while the increase in inputs led to a considerable increase in output, the authors found no evidence that profits increased. These results suggest that fertilizer's impact on profits is small compared to other sources of variation.
Jennifer L. Chan (Emergency Medicine), and Fredrick M. Burkle Jr., “A Framework and Methodology for Navigating Disaster and Global Health in Crisis Literature,” PLoS: Currents, Apr 2013.
Both ‘disasters’ and ‘global health in crisis’ research has dramatically grown due to the ever-increasing frequency and magnitude of crises around the world. Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners now face a new challenge: that of accessing the expansive literature for decision-making and exploring new areas of research as well as grey literature using search engines like Google Scholar. This article presents both a framework and workable process for a diverse group of users to navigate the growing peer-reviewed and grey disaster and global health in crisis literature.
Eszter Hargittai and Aaron Shaw (Communication Studies), "Digitally Savvy Citizenship: The Role of Internet Skills and Engagement in Young Adults' Political Participation around the 2008 Presidential Election," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 57 (2) 2013: 115-124.
Popular narratives assume that digital media play a central role mobilizing voters and especially young adults. Based on unique survey data of a diverse group or young adults from Spring 2009, Hargittai and Shaw consider the relationship between differentiated internet uses, and online and offline political engagement around the time of the 2008 US presidential election. They find an association between Internet skills, social network site usage and greater levels of engagement. These findings imply that although Internet usage alone is unlikely to transform existing patterns in political participation radically, it may facilitate the creation of new pathways for engagement.
Paul Hirsch (Kellogg), et. al., "Chemicals, companies, and countries: The concept of diffusion in management research," Research in Organizational Behavior 2013.
In the field of organizational behavior, the term "diffusion" has come to be implicitly paired with the concept of innovation and a peculiar set of conceptual choices. Hirsch and his colleagues explore how this came about, and examine the evolution of the concept "diffusion" from its inception in the English language through its use in the natural and social sciences to its current meaning in organizational research. They conclude by noting implications of the findings for exploring the evolution of meaning for other concepts, and their utilization in research on organizations.
Seema Jayachandran (Economics), "Liquidity Constraints and Deforestation: The Limitations of Payments for Ecosystem Services," American Economic Review 103 (3) 2013: 309-13.
Deforestation is responsible for 20 percent of anthropogenic carbon emissions, and today most of it occurs in developing countries. Curbing deforestation in poor countries is potentially one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce carbon emissions and to address climate change. One popular policy approach to reducing deforestation is to pay forest owners for avoiding deforestation on their land. This type of policy is called "payments for ecosystem services" (PES); payments are made conditional on voluntary pro-environment behaviors. Jayachandran considers how the effectiveness of such incentive payments depends on the time profile of forest owners' opportunity costs. The time profile of opportunity costs theoretically becomes quite important to the success of a PES program when credit markets are imperfect.
Rajeev Kinra (History), "Handling Diversity with Absolute Civility: The Global Historical Legacy of Mughal Sulh-i Kull," Medieval History Journal, 16 (2) 2013: 251-295.
A good deal of Mughal cultural historiography is still dominated by the patronage and liberal outlooks of two figures, the Emperor Jalal al-Din Muhammad Akbar (r. 1556–1605) and his great-grandson, Prince Dara Shukoh (1615–1659), both of whom are viewed as having been especially tolerant toward non-Muslims. This article aims to present a survey of evidence for a broader and continuing Mughal approach to handling India's diversity and connect it to the larger connected histories of tolerance in global early modernity.
Joshua Kleinfeld (Law), "A Theory of Criminal Victimization," Stanford Law Review 65 (5) 2013: 12-38.
Criminal punishment is systematically harsher, given a fixed crime, where victims are vulnerable or innocent, and systematically less harsh where victims are powerful or culpable. Kleinfeld sets forth the concept of "victimization"—the idea that the moral status of a wrongful act turns in part on the degree to which the wrong's victim is vulnerable or innocent and the wrongdoer preys upon that vulnerability or innocence. It shows the concept to be implicit in both the doctrine and practice of criminal law.
Robert Launay (Anthropology), "Is Lévi-Strauss Still Good to Think?" Reviews in Anthropology 42 (1) 2013.
The centenary of Claude Lévi-Strauss' birth, and his death shortly afterwards, have generated a spurt of publications ranging from biographies to collections of essays to unpublished works. Some of these works dwell on his worldview, his preoccupations with globalization, overpopulation, and the environment, albeit in ways that reflect the poverty of his sociological analysis. Launay argues that reappraisals of his structural approaches to the study of kinship, myth, and aesthetics are more relevant to contemporary approaches in anthropology, especially those that stress his paradoxical wedding of primary sensuous experience to abstract patterns of thought.
James Mahoney (Sociology), et al., "Causal Models and Counterfactuals," Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research 2013: 75-90.
Mahoney and his colleagues compare statistical and set-theoretic approaches to causal analysis. Statistical researchers commonly use additive, linear causal models, whereas set-theoretic researchers typically use logic-based causal models. They conclude by urging greater appreciation of the differences between the statistical and set-theoretic approaches to causal analysis.
Jide Nzelibe (Law), "Contesting Adjudication: The Partisan Divide over Alien Tort Statute Litigation," Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business 33 (3) 2013: 12-31.
This essay advances a partisan entrenchment logic to explain the variation in the approaches of Republican and Democratic administrations to Alien Tort Statute adjudication. Under this logic, presidents and judges are political actors whose partisan (or ideological) preferences regarding international law will sometimes trump their institutional or interpretive empire-building objectives.
Shalini Shankar (Anthropology), "Affect and Sport in South Asian American Advertising," South Asian Popular Culture 11 (3) 2013: 231-242.
Shankar considers how sport and celebrity athletes are strategically used in advertising tailored toward South Asians in the diaspora, what she refers to as "South Asian American advertising." She discusses how ad executives construct and deploy affect in advertisements to resignify meanings linked to particular sports and analyzes the significance of celebrity athletes in creating new diasporic affiliations and identities.
Karen Alter (Political Science), "The Global Spread of European Style International Courts," West European Politics 35 (1) 2012: 135-154.
Alter explores how Europe's embedded international courts, especially the European Court of Justice (ECJ), have spread around the world, and how other regions have used the ECJ model as well as how they have differed from it.
Sandeep Baliga (Kellogg), and Tomas Sjöström, "The Strategy of Manipulating Conflict," The American Economic Review 102 (6), October 2012: 2897-2922
Baliga and his colleague use game theory to test the results of hawkish and dovish actions in a conflict game with incomplete information.
Lori Beaman (Economics), et. al., "Female Leadership Raises Aspirations and Educational Attainment for Girls: A Policy Experiment in India,"Science 335 (6068) 2012: 582-586.
Using a randomized natural experiment in India, Beaman and her colleagues show that female leadership influences adolescent girls' career aspirations and educational attainment. Using surveys of adolescents and their parents in almost five hundred villages, they found that, relative to villages in which such positions were never reserved, the gender gap in aspirations closed by 20% in parents and 32% in adolescents in villages assigned a female leader for two election cycles.
Lori Beaman (Economics), "Social Networks and the Dynamics of Labour Market Outcomes: Evidence from Refugees Resettled in the U.S.,"Review of Economic Studies 79 (1) 2012: 128-161.
Beaman examines the dynamic implications of social networks for the labor market outcomes of refugees resettled in the US. Her results indicate that an increase in the number of social network members resettled in the same year or one year prior to a new arrival leads to a deterioration of outcomes, while a greater number of tenured network members improves the probability of employment and raises the hourly wage.
Bernard Black (Kellogg and Law), et al., "The effect of board structure on firm value: A multiple identification strategies approach using Korean data," Journal of Financial Economics 104 (1) 2012: 203–226.
Outside directors and audit committees are widely considered to be central elements of good corporate governance. Black and his colleagues use a 1999 Korean law as an exogenous shock to assess whether and how board structure affects firm market value. The law mandates 50% outside directors and an audit committee for large public firms, but not smaller firms. The legal shock produces economically large share price increases for large firms, relative to mid-sized firms; their share prices jump in 1999 when the reforms are announced.
Pablo Boczkowski and Ignacio Siles (Communication Studies), "Making sense of the newspaper crisis: A critical assessment of existing research and an agenda for future work," New Media and Society 14 (8) 2012: 1375-1394.
This article analyzes recent research on the newspaper crisis. It discusses how authors have examined the sources, manifestations, and implications of this crisis, and the proposals to resolve it. Building on this assessment, the article outlines an agenda for future work that fosters an analysis of the process, history, comparative development, and manifold implications of this crisis, and advances various empirical strategies to examine some of its most under-theorized dimensions.
Nathalie Bouzaglo (Spanish and Portuguese), "Doctors' Visits and Adultery in Late Nineteenth-Century Narrative," Revista Hispánica Moderna 65 (1) 2012.
Bouzaglo examines the narrative of adultery by placing two apparently unrelated texts into dialogue: the North American legal case Emile C. Berckmans v. Sara E. Berckmans (1865), and the Venezuelan novel Mimí (1898) by the writer, lawyer, and politician Rafael Cabrera Malo. Although the legal case and novel function in different contexts and are governed by different codes, each tells the true story of a woman who suffers a mysterious illness and commits adultery. Bouzaglo proposes that melodrama, despite its apparent focus on the personal sphere, highlights the necessity of sociopolitical change.
Jonathan Caverley (Political Science), and Ethan Kapstein, "Arms Away: How Washington Squandered Its Monopoly on Weapons Sales,"Foreign Affairs 91 (5) 2012: 125-132.
Caverley and Kapstein argue that by placing an excessive emphasis on the development of military technology and the acquisition of costly weapons systems and other military equipment, the US has forfeited its dominant position in the market for arms transfers to foreign countries to competitors including Russia, China, and Israel. The development of the F-35 jet fighter plane is cited as an example of how US military planning's focus on advanced technology has negatively affected the competitive position of the country's defense industries.
Jordan Gans-Morse (Political Science), "Threats to Property Rights in Russia: From Private Coercion to State Aggression," Post-Soviet Affairs 28 (3) 2012: 263-295.
Gans-Morse explores a fundamental shift in threats to property rights in Russia, where state actors (instead of extortion rackets or physical intimidation) are now the primary aggressors. Key threats now include seizing firms' assets, illegal corporate raiding, extortion, and unlawful arrests of businesspeople.
Doris L. Garraway (French and Italian), "Empire of Freedom, Kingdom of Civilization: Henry Christophe, the Baron de Vastey, and the Paradoxes of Universalism in Postrevolutionary Haiti," Small Axe 16 (3 39) 2012: 1-21.
Garraway proposes a new interpretation of the Haitian Revolution and its aftermath by examining the ideological foundations for the emergence of the first monarchy in the postcolonial Atlantic world. The discourse of freedom and the practice of authoritarianism in the Haitian Revolution show the profound antinomies of the discourse of universalism.
Elizabeth Shakman Hurd (Political Science), "International Politics After Secularism," Review of International Studies 38 (5) 2012: 943–961.
The notion that religion had been ignored and should be "brought back in" to International Relations has recently taken center stage among many academics and practitioners. Hurd undertakes a critical analysis of this restorative narrative and the religious and political world it is creating, and proposes a different approach to the intersection of religion and world politics after secularism.
Ian Hurd (Political Science), "Almost Saving Whales: The Ambiguity of Success at the International Whaling Commission," Ethics and International Affairs 26 (1) 2012: 1-10.
Hurd provides a history of the success of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) from the 1960s, but he also shows how the organization's current crisis may put the IWC in danger.
Melissa Dell, Benjamin F. Jones (Kellogg), and Benjamin A. Olken, "Temperature Shocks and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Half Century," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 4 (3) 2012: 66-95.
Jones and his colleagues use historical fluctuations in temperature within countries to identify its effects on aggregate economic outcomes. First, higher temperatures substantially reduce economic growth in poor countries. Second, higher temperatures may reduce growth rates, not just the level of output. Third, higher temperatures have wide-ranging effects, reducing agricultural output, industrial output, and political stability.
Eugene Kontorovich (Law), "The Penalties for Piracy: An Empirical Study of National Prosecution for International Crime," Northwestern Public Law Research Papers 2012.
Kontorovich examines the sentences imposed by courts around the world in prosecutions of Somali pirates captured on the high seas. International law is silent on the subject of penalties. He finds that the global average sentence for piracy is just over fourteen years, but few pirates receive the average sentence: they vary from four years to life in prison. These findings suggest how there can be international consensus about a crime's illegality without a corresponding consensus on the severity of the crime.
Dominique Licops (French and Italian), "Reading and Danger: The Emerging Writer in Maryse Condé's and Gisèle Pineau's Autofiction," Women in French Studies 2012: 248-264.
In Le Cœur à rire et à pleurer and L'Exil Selon Julia, Maryse Condé and Gisèle Pineau narrate the journeys of their semi-fictional younger selves from the dangers and pleasures of reading to those of writing. Their texts shed light on women's ambiguous relationship to books, while suggesting that the postcolonial contexts the characters live in multiply the dangers of reading. Condé and Pineau's narratives reveal how the colonialist or racist ideologies that permeate the books they read and the contexts in which they read them complicate the equivocal nature of reading for young girls. In this article, Licops examines to what extent these circumstances affect the way the reader-protagonist situates herself vis-à-vis the texts she reads, how she identifies with or against certain characters, and to what degree these identifications in turn influence her development.
Wendy Pearlman (Political Science), and Theodore McLauchlin, "Out-Group Conflict, In-Group Unity?: Exploring the Effect of Repression on Intramovement Cooperation," Journal of Conflict Resolution 51 (1) 2012, 41-66.
Pearlman and McLauchlin argue that repression amplifies trends in cooperation or conflict existent in a movement before the onset of repression. They illustrate this through comparative analysis of four repression shocks from two nationalist movements: the Kurdish movement in Iraq and the Palestinian national movement.
Rachel Beatty Riedl (Political Science), and Noam Lupu, "Political Parties and Uncertainty in Developing Democracies," Comparative Political Studies 2012.
Riedl and Lupu offer a theoretical framework for understanding the effects of political uncertainty on party development and strategies of mobilization and competition. They argue that political uncertainty is particularly high among developing democracies, contributing to puzzling empirical patterns of party development and competition in these contexts. Their theoretical framework can be applied broadly since uncertainty informs the strategic choices of a much wider range of political actors.
Shalini Shankar (Anthropology), "Creating Model Consumers: Producing Ethnicity, Race, and Class in Asian American Advertising," American Ethnologist 39 (3) 2012: 578-591.
How does Asian American advertising contribute to the construction of race and ethnicity in the contemporary United States? Shankar considers how executives write advertising copy and create original artwork for Asian American advertisements in ways that index brand identities, and shows how racialization occurs through the transformation of Asian Americans from model minority producers into model minority consumers.
Jessica Winegar (Anthropology), and Lara Deeb, "Anthropologies of Arab-Majority Societies," Annual Review of Anthropology 41 2012: 537-558.
Winegar and Deeb review recent anthropological scholarship of Arab-majority societies in relation to geopolitical and theoretical shifts since the end of the Cold War, as well as conjunctures of research location, topic, and theory. Key contributions of the subfield to the larger discipline include interventions into feminist theorizing about agency; theories of modernity; analyses of cultural production/consumption that destabilize the culture concept; approaches to religion that integrate textual traditions with practice, experience, and institutions; and research on violence that emphasizes routinization and affect.
Jessica Winegar (Anthropology), "The Privilege of Revolution: Gender, Class, Space, and Affect in Egypt," American Ethnologist 39 (1) 2012: 67-70.
Winegar challenges assumptions about political transformation by contrasting women's experiences at home during the Egyptian revolution with the image of the iconic male revolutionary in Tahrir Square. She calls attention to the way that revolution is experienced and undertaken in domestic spaces, through different forms of affect, in ways deeply inflected by gender and class.